NDT News

How Low Temperatures Impact Dye Penetrant Testing

In this article, we look at how lower inspection temperatures affect the performance of dye penetrant testing cleaners, penetrant and developers

The operating temperature range for penetrant inspection as specified in ASTM E1417 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing is 40°F to 125°F (4°C to 52°C), but how is the penetrant inspection affected at temperatures below 40°F (4°C) and can the inspection process be adjusted to achieve acceptable results?

To answer these questions, we evaluated SKC-S cleaner/remover, SKL-SP2 solvent removable dye penetrant and SKD-S2 non-aqueous developer at a range of temperatures in order to figure out what NDT inspectors can expect when using these, or similar quality dye penetrant products when inspecting at lower temperatures

Cleaning at lower temperatures

At lower temperatures in the range of 32°F – 50°F (0°C – 10°C), the solvent cleaner will take longer to dry.

We used 75°F (24°C) as our ambient, standard operating temperature, and observed how decreasing temperatures impacted how quickly the solvent cleaner dried. Below are our suggested drying time for solvent-based cleaner/removers at lower temperatures.
 

TemperatureCleaner Drying Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
50°F / 10°C 2 x Standard
40°F / 4°C 3 x Standard
32°F / 0°C 4 x Standard

It is critical to make sure the solvent has evaporated during the precleaning step either by wiping with a clean, lint free cloth or using air dryers to ensure a clean and dry part prior to penetrant application. Unevaporated cleaner remaining in indications can impede penetrant entry into the surface breaking indications.

Dwelling at lower temperatures

Penetration time should also be extended since the viscosity of penetrant increases with decreasing temperatures, which slows down penetration and can significantly impact the test results.
 

TemperatureDwell Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
45°F / 7°C 2 x Standard
32°F / 0°C 2.5 x Standard

Developer at lower temperatures

Developer drying time is more of a challenge and our tests showed the developing action is impeded because of the slower solvent evaporation. When the developer dries, the indications become fuzzy or show excessive bleed out.

Penetrant Developer

We were not able to get good results at 32°F (0°C) because the developer remained wet and did not dry within a reasonable amount of time. At 38 – 40°F (3 – 4°C), and with some air movement, developer film will dry at 5 times the standard time at 75°F (24°C).
 

TemperatureDeveloper Drying Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
40°F / 4°C 5 x Standard

A positive note is at low temperatures, we found good indications with extremely small and tight defects. The slow drying rate of the developer film allows greater bleed out of the penetrant from the defect. For large defects, longer development time caused excessive bleed out making indication interpretation more difficult.


Contact us if you need more help assessing your low temperature dye penetrant application, or have any questions on additional products for dye or liquid penetrant testing

Do you have any tips for low temperature dye penetrant testing or other non-destructive testing?
Share your ideas in the comments section below.

Source: https://magnaflux.com/Magnaflux/Blog/Low-Temperature-Dye-Penetrant-Testing?utm_source=linkedin&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=Education&utm_content=Low-Temp-Dye-Penetrant

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Exposing 10 Common Misunderstandings about Penetrant Testing

We reveal common penetrant inspection misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years

The liquid penetrant method of nondestructive testing has been used since the 1940’s. But even after being used by generations of NDT professionals, there are still some common areas of confusion or misunderstanding.

Here we set the record straight on 10 misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years.

 

1. The highest sensitivity penetrant is the best penetrant for my application

The best penetrant for an application is the one that finds the right indications with the least amount of money and time. Sometimes this means not using the highest sensitivity penetrant.

While it is true that a higher sensitivity penetrant will produce indications for very small discontinuities, a higher sensitivity penetrant will probably not give you the best inspection results if you only need to find medium discontinuities since you will see far more indications than are relevant to the inspection.

To start selecting a penetrant, review any governing specifications and work procedures for required sensitivity levels.

Take into consideration the surface finish and configuration of the part.

A high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant is appropriate for smooth, highly machined surfaces. However, a high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant may leave excessive fluorescent background on a rough cast part, making inspection difficult. 

A lower sensitivity fluorescent penetrant is a better choice for rough surfaces.

 

2. A penetrant indication is a discontinuity

A penetrant indication is the visual results or response of the penetrant test which must be interpreted to determine its relevance.

Penetrant indications must be evaluated by a qualified inspector to determine if they are nonrelevant or relevant.

Nonrelevant indications may be present on parts because of inherent surface roughness or seams. Fingerprints or fibers may also cause nonrelevant indications.

Relevant indications are the result of a discontinuity, or interruption in the physical structure of an object, and are evaluated according to acceptance criteria. After evaluation, the part is accepted as is, reworked or discarded.

 

3. Water washable penetrants are water based

Some water washable penetrants are water based. However, this is not always the case. A penetrant can be water washable and not contain water.

Water-washable penetrants contain surfactants which allow the penetrant to be easily removed from the part surface with water rinsing, regardless of if they are water-based or oil-based.

 

4. Penetrants are only used on nonferrous metals

Penetrants can be used to inspect ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant inspection will find discontinuities open to the surface on ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant testing should not be done on porous surfaces, as the pores will act as discontinuities to trap penetrant and prevent accurate inspection.

 

5. Penetrant will be able to penetrate a discontinuity that contains water

Penetrant cannot seep into a discontinuity if it is already filled with water or other liquid.

Likewise, penetrant will not displace or penetrate through paint, particulate, oil or grease.

This is one of the reasons why an important prerequisite for a valid penetrant inspection is to start with properly cleaned and dried parts.

 

6. Tanks and an inspection booth are required for penetrant inspection

Penetrant inspection is easy to adapt to different environments and job sites.

Penetrant inspection systems with stationary tanks and booths are commonly seen in production environments. However, both fluorescent and visible dye penetrants are available in aerosol cans and kits for convenience and portability.

 

Check out our Penetrant Process Guide for a visual reference outlining each step in the various penetrant inspection methods and to learn 5 tips for penetrant testing

 

7. Penetrant is all that is needed to perform a penetrant inspection

At a minimum, penetrant and developer are required to perform a water washable penetrant inspection.

Additional products such as cleaner/removers and emulsifiers are required for solvent removable and post emulsifiable penetrant inspections.

 

8. Special lighting is required for penetrant inspection

Fluorescent penetrants do require inspection in a darkened area with specification compliant UV lighting. The UV lights may be mounted or hand-held for flexibility and portability.

Visible dye penetrants only require adequate white light, typically 100 foot candles minimum, for inspection.

 

9. Penetrant inspection should be the final check in a manufacturing process

Penetrant inspection is useful immediately after any manufacturing process which is known to cause discontinuities. This allows parts to be reworked or discarded earlier in the manufacturing process, which saves time and cost.

Penetrant inspection may sometimes be performed more than once during the manufacture of a part.

The placement of each penetrant inspection process should be optimized to locate manufacturing-induced discontinuities and reduce the amount of scrap or rework done later in the manufacturing process.

 

10. Penetrant inspection can take place at any point in the manufacturing process

As discussed, it is important to perform penetrant inspection after manufacturing operations likely to cause discontinuities open to the surface in parts.

However, care must be taken to perform penetrant inspection prior to mechanical operations that will smear the metal surface. Machining operations such as shot blasting, peening or grinding may close surface discontinuities, which can prevent subsequent penetrant inspections from finding these discontinuities.

Penetrant inspection should take place before machining operations like shot blasting, peening or grinding unless chemical etching can be used between these operations and the penetrant testing to reliably expose the discontinuities.

 

What other common misunderstandings or mistakes have you seen? 
Share your knowledge in the comments section below.

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Everyday NDT

AINDT offers top-notch training in for an exciting new career in a variety of fields that will always be in high demand. But what IS NDT? Nondestructive testing creates a safer world for all of us in our daily lives. For example, at least 126,696,000 lug nuts were NDT-tested on the 7,918,601 cars sold in the US in 2014. 61,064 structurally-deficient bridges require NDT testing for their 215 million daily crossings. Since 2007, two notable bridge failures occurred in the US due to NDT-detectable problems. Starting to get the picture? NDT testing is used in just about every major field you can think of, including 1,726,359 miles of oil and gas pipeline in the US as of 2013. With 140,000 rail miles in the US, 2014 brought 295 derailments due to structural failure which NDT detects. NDT is an ever-growing field with increasing demand. Billions of airline passengers also benefit from NDT. If you're ready for an important new career in NDT, call today to speak to one of our instructors for more information. Competitive salaries and job placement assistance are all part of NDT. Call AINDT today! (855) 313-0325.

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9 Transparently Amazing Facts About X-Rays

9 Transparently Amazing Facts About X-RaysIn 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen, a professor of Physics in Worzburg, Bavaria, was the first to find a way to peer inside the body without surgery. On the evening of November 8, he was experimenting with the conduction of electricity through low-pressure gases using an induction coil and a partially-evacuated glass tube when he accidentally discovered a mysterious ray capable of lighting up a fluorescent screen a few meters away.

On the evening of November 8, he was experimenting with the conduction of electricity through low-pressure gases using an induction coil and a partially-evacuated glass tube when he accidentally discovered a mysterious ray capable of lighting up a fluorescent screen a few meters away.

When he passed his hand between the ray and the screen, he glimpsed a shadow of his own bones. Further experimentation showed that the screen could be replaced by a photographic plate—and the x-ray was born. Roentgen would later earn the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery.

http://mentalfloss.com/article/70900/9-transparently-amazing-facts-about-x-rays

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Corporate NDT Training

Corporate NDT TrainingThe American Institute of Nondestructive Testing (AINDT) offers online and hands-on training for your company. Simply set up a corporate account with us for easy billing and additional discounts. All individual classes include study material, access to our online learning system, and instructor support via phone, video conference and/or email. Our online Level I and II final exams are fully proctored by Examity online proctoring services to ensure the highest level of integrity for your company's training needs. Unlike most NDT schools we have no minimum class size or limited training schedules. We will work with your schedule to get you the training you need. We are a fully-staffed NDT school, offering training in UT, RT, MT, PT, VT and radiation safety. Our 6,200 square foot facility includes all the equipment and flawed specimens you'll need to complete your hands-on training. Call us today (855) 313-0325 and we will work with you to customize an NDT program fits your budget and schedule!

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Corrosion Under Insulation: The 7 Inspection Methods You Must Know About

Melissa Syvrais | Apr 14, 2016
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/corrosion-under-insulation-7-inspection-methods-you-must-syvrais-1

April 4, 2016 - Author: Charles Tremblay

As we discussed in our previous article, corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the most difficult corrosion processes to prevent. The reason for that is, by and large, no matter the precautions taken, water invariably seeps into the insulation and begins its dirty work—sometimes unseen until process leakage occurs. Data shows that about 60% of pipe leaks are caused by CUI. That’s not good.

CUI is difficult to find because the insulation covers the corrosion problem until it is too late. Removing insulation, inspecting, and then reinstating the insulation after inspection is an expensive process. Inspecting without removing insulation and weather jackets greatly reduces the cost of inspections. Non-destructive testing methods to detect CUI in such a way is therefore a major benefit to the industry.

There are a number of methods used today to inspect for CUI. No one method is ever used by itself—several methods complement each other for optimal results, but that’s not the object of this article.

The most common and straightforward way to inspect for corrosion under insulation is to cut plugs in the insulation that can be removed to allow for ultrasonic testing. The other commonly used methods are radiography, and complete insulation removal. More advanced methods include pulsed eddy current. CLICK HERE to read the seven most common methods of inspecting for CUI with their pros and cons.

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Why Choose AINDT?

Why Choose AINDT?AINDT is the nondestructive testing school that offers individual training for NDT technicians. We offer versatility, with both online NDT education and hands-on NDT training at our fully staffed and fully equipped 6,400 square foot facility. Since AINDT is the original NDT blended learning school in the U.S., we can customize a program to meet your company's needs with either online or hands-on NDT education, or a combination of the two. AINDT offers excellent customer service, always on hand to answer all questions, and handle every call personally. We offer the highest quality NDT education possible. AINDT cares about every student and gives each individual the time and personal attention they require to succeed. Call us today for more information and to get started on your exciting NDT training. (855) 313-0325.

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Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection Market by Technique, Service, Vertical, and Geography

Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection Market by Technique, Service, Vertical, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022
Source: Research and Markets, June 2016
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/publication/m8ung6o/3750332

"The Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Market is Expected to Reach USD 11.39 Billion by 2022 at a CAGR of 8.30% Between 2016 and 2022"

"The non-destructive testing (NDT) and inspection market size was valued at USD 6.46 Billion in 2015 and is expected to increase to USD 11.39 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 8.30% between 2016 and 2022. The base year considered for the study is 2015 and the forecast period is between 2016 and 2022. This report provides a detailed analysis of the non-destructive inspection market based on technique, method, service, vertical, and geography. The demand for NDT is increasing all over the world due to regulations by governments for improving the overall safety of industrial assets, workforce, and the surrounding environment. Non-destructive testing is a process to test defects or discontinuities in materials, components, or assemblies without destroying its serviceability."

Click Here to read and evaluate this Global Forecast to 2022.

If you have questions regarding non-destructive testing or our complete Nondestructive Testing Certificate Program contact an AINDT Instructor today 855-313-0325.

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NDT training services market is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period

Source:
http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ndt-services-market-by-testing-technique-type-vertical--geography---global-forecast-to-2022-300370291.html

NEWS PROVIDED BY
ReportBuyer
Nov 29, 2016, 23:38 ET

"NDT training services market is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period"

"The demand for NDT services would increase in the near future owing to the aging infrastructure and the increasing rate of new infrastructure development. Moreover, owing to the shift to advanced NDT techniques, such as phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) from traditional NDT techniques; there would be a need for skilled technicians. As a result, the NDT training services market is expected to grow because of the shortage for trained technicians for conducting NDT inspections in the NDT market.
"Oil & gas sector is expected to hold the largest share during the forecast period"

The demand for NDT technologies in the oil & gas sector is largely driven by government regulations for improving the safety of people and environment by avoiding oil spillage due to leaks, bursting of pipes, or any other accidents. As majority of the piping infrastructure and refineries are timeworn, it is imperative to conduct regular NDT inspections to ensure the integrity of these assets. The fall in oil prices since the end of 2014 are not expected to significantly impact the demand for NDT inspection on existing infrastructure. Thus, the oil & gas sector is expected to remain the largest market for NDT during the forecast period."

Click Here to read the rest of the article.

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School For Thought

Oct02 InspirationalGraphicIf you're looking for a new direction in a rewarding new career, look no further than AINDT. AINDT offers the best, most affordable vocational school around. Non-destructive testing is a growing industry that is needed in just about every aspect of our daily lives from the auto industry, to bridges, to oil and gas development, to aerospace. AINDT offers the technical vocational training you need to get certified in a high-demand, well-paying career that will never become obsolete. Combining both interactive, trade school courses with hands-on training, AINDT also offers job placement assistance to find your perfect fit in your chosen field. Call 855-313-0325 today. Instructors are waiting to talk to you!
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Successful Start to Son's Career in NDT

"I am writing to let you know how happy my husband and I are with our decision to have our son Matthew train in NDT through your excellent program. As you know, he recently accepted an offer and began working at TEAM Industrial Testing in New Jersey. His training has him ahead of the curve for his position as an assistant Radiographer and that is a credit to your program.

Matthew is now working in refineries and power plants in and around the Philadelphia area and loves the challenge every day brings with his new career. He often talks of his great experience in the month of hands-on training in Baxter. The advice and life stories of your entire staff had a great impact on a young man who is both ambitious and excited about his future.

Matthew is the youngest of 6 children in our family, 5 of whom attended colleges and universities with varying degrees in diverse fields of education. It is safe to say his career outlook is as promising or even more so than some of his siblings. Your program casts new light on careers in the trade industry.

We wish you continued success with your program and will most certainly share our positive experience with others. Thank you again for giving our son a great education and an opportunity of a very bright future."

Sincerely,
Barb and Paul C.

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Phased Array Tutorial

Source: Olympus
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/phased-array/?utm_content=sf47320560&utm_medium=spredfast&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=Olympus+IMS&sf47320560=1

"Ultrasonic phased array testing is a powerful NDT technology and one whose use is growing rapidly, however it can seem complex to a person who has not worked with it. This self-guided tutorial is a basic introduction to ultrasonic phased array testing, both for newcomers and for more experienced users who want a review of basic principles. It begins with what phased array testing is and how it works, then outlines some considerations for selecting probes and instruments, and ends with links to phased array application notes and a phased array glossary. In addition to text and illustrations it includes a series of interactive Flash files as learning tools."

Read More: http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/phased-array/?utm_content=sf47320560&utm_medium=spredfast&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=Olympus+IMS&sf47320560=1

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New Nondestructive Testing School Opens in Baxter

Posted: August 6, 2013 - 8:52pmb2ap3_thumbnail_Brainerd-Dispatch-NDT-Training.jpg

A new school has opened its doors in Baxter.

The American Institute of Nondestructive Testing focuses on nondestructive testing, which helps assure that structural and mechanical components are functioning in a safe and reliable way. Technicians perform tests to find any sign of weakness.

For example, students learn to inspect products like car parts or bridges for flaws like corrosion, stress cracking, failure and fatigue.

It’s just one of five schools of its kind in the country, said Donald Booth, CEO and instructor. The Baxter location offers something the others don’t: online courses, Booth said.

“I wanted this education brought to the future by offering it in an online, condensed form,” Booth said. “There are people with bills, family and jobs. They can’t take two years out for school. I say let’s get them in and in a high-demand job.”

All courses are available on an iPad, iPhone or Android.

To read the entire article, please visit: http://brainerddispatch.com/news/2013-08-06/new-nondestructive-testing-school-opens-baxter


 

YOU ARE INVITED: The American Institute of NonDestructive Testing invites you to an Open House - Saturday, September 7th from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.!

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Looking for a Great Career? Visit The American Institute of NonDestructive Testing!

b2ap3_thumbnail_Aug02_OpenHouseV2.jpg

If you are looking for a great career that will change your life? Plan on stopping by The American Institute of NonDestructive Testing on Saturday, September 7th between 9:00 am - 5:00 pm. 

 

  • LEARN ABOUT OUR TRAINING PROGRAM
  • JOIN us for HANDS-ON DEMONSTRATIONS
  • USE ULTRASONIC, MAGNETIC PARTICLE, LIQUID PENETRANT AND VISUAL EXAMINATION EQUIPMENT.
  • TRY OUR ONLINE LEARNING COURSE
  • MEET OUR INSTRUCTORS

The American Institute of NonDestructive Testing is located at: 7942 College Road, Suite 105 Baxter, MN 56425

 

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AINDT Offers State Of The Art Facility to Students

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The American Institute of NonDestructive Testing has a 4,200 Square FT. facility that offers a state of the art training lab with individual workstations for up to 40 students.

NonDestructive Testing labs are equipped with everything needed to gain the hands-on experience in UT, RT, MT, PT, and VT methods of examination.

Hands-On Training at our facility coming in 2014!

Come to our OPEN HOUSE Saturday, September 7th from 9:00am - 5:00pm and see it for yourself!

 7942 College Road Suite 105, Baxter, MN 56425

 

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