NDT News

Exposing 10 Common Misunderstandings about Penetrant Testing

We reveal common penetrant inspection misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years

The liquid penetrant method of nondestructive testing has been used since the 1940’s. But even after being used by generations of NDT professionals, there are still some common areas of confusion or misunderstanding.

Here we set the record straight on 10 misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years.

 

1. The highest sensitivity penetrant is the best penetrant for my application

The best penetrant for an application is the one that finds the right indications with the least amount of money and time. Sometimes this means not using the highest sensitivity penetrant.

While it is true that a higher sensitivity penetrant will produce indications for very small discontinuities, a higher sensitivity penetrant will probably not give you the best inspection results if you only need to find medium discontinuities since you will see far more indications than are relevant to the inspection.

To start selecting a penetrant, review any governing specifications and work procedures for required sensitivity levels.

Take into consideration the surface finish and configuration of the part.

A high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant is appropriate for smooth, highly machined surfaces. However, a high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant may leave excessive fluorescent background on a rough cast part, making inspection difficult. 

A lower sensitivity fluorescent penetrant is a better choice for rough surfaces.

 

2. A penetrant indication is a discontinuity

A penetrant indication is the visual results or response of the penetrant test which must be interpreted to determine its relevance.

Penetrant indications must be evaluated by a qualified inspector to determine if they are nonrelevant or relevant.

Nonrelevant indications may be present on parts because of inherent surface roughness or seams. Fingerprints or fibers may also cause nonrelevant indications.

Relevant indications are the result of a discontinuity, or interruption in the physical structure of an object, and are evaluated according to acceptance criteria. After evaluation, the part is accepted as is, reworked or discarded.

 

3. Water washable penetrants are water based

Some water washable penetrants are water based. However, this is not always the case. A penetrant can be water washable and not contain water.

Water-washable penetrants contain surfactants which allow the penetrant to be easily removed from the part surface with water rinsing, regardless of if they are water-based or oil-based.

 

4. Penetrants are only used on nonferrous metals

Penetrants can be used to inspect ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant inspection will find discontinuities open to the surface on ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant testing should not be done on porous surfaces, as the pores will act as discontinuities to trap penetrant and prevent accurate inspection.

 

5. Penetrant will be able to penetrate a discontinuity that contains water

Penetrant cannot seep into a discontinuity if it is already filled with water or other liquid.

Likewise, penetrant will not displace or penetrate through paint, particulate, oil or grease.

This is one of the reasons why an important prerequisite for a valid penetrant inspection is to start with properly cleaned and dried parts.

 

6. Tanks and an inspection booth are required for penetrant inspection

Penetrant inspection is easy to adapt to different environments and job sites.

Penetrant inspection systems with stationary tanks and booths are commonly seen in production environments. However, both fluorescent and visible dye penetrants are available in aerosol cans and kits for convenience and portability.

 

Check out our Penetrant Process Guide for a visual reference outlining each step in the various penetrant inspection methods and to learn 5 tips for penetrant testing

 

7. Penetrant is all that is needed to perform a penetrant inspection

At a minimum, penetrant and developer are required to perform a water washable penetrant inspection.

Additional products such as cleaner/removers and emulsifiers are required for solvent removable and post emulsifiable penetrant inspections.

 

8. Special lighting is required for penetrant inspection

Fluorescent penetrants do require inspection in a darkened area with specification compliant UV lighting. The UV lights may be mounted or hand-held for flexibility and portability.

Visible dye penetrants only require adequate white light, typically 100 foot candles minimum, for inspection.

 

9. Penetrant inspection should be the final check in a manufacturing process

Penetrant inspection is useful immediately after any manufacturing process which is known to cause discontinuities. This allows parts to be reworked or discarded earlier in the manufacturing process, which saves time and cost.

Penetrant inspection may sometimes be performed more than once during the manufacture of a part.

The placement of each penetrant inspection process should be optimized to locate manufacturing-induced discontinuities and reduce the amount of scrap or rework done later in the manufacturing process.

 

10. Penetrant inspection can take place at any point in the manufacturing process

As discussed, it is important to perform penetrant inspection after manufacturing operations likely to cause discontinuities open to the surface in parts.

However, care must be taken to perform penetrant inspection prior to mechanical operations that will smear the metal surface. Machining operations such as shot blasting, peening or grinding may close surface discontinuities, which can prevent subsequent penetrant inspections from finding these discontinuities.

Penetrant inspection should take place before machining operations like shot blasting, peening or grinding unless chemical etching can be used between these operations and the penetrant testing to reliably expose the discontinuities.

 

What other common misunderstandings or mistakes have you seen? 
Share your knowledge in the comments section below.

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Another Happy Graduate of AINDT!

Hey guys,

I just finished my first week and thought I'd share what it has been like. Of course, I'm just assisting on these for now, but once I get my certs, I'll be out there on my own doing this stuff.

Day 1: MT on welds for a piece to be used by a private space exploration company.

Day2: UT lamination scans on large steel plates used for construction of a new ferry.

Day 3: PT on welds for ferry construction; UT shear wave on pipe welds

Day 4: UT thickness gauging the hull of a small freighter

Day 5: UT thickness gauging safety pins on the top of a grain elevator (about 100 feet up, harnessed and dangling off the roof); MT on a repair weld for the boom of a cement truck

Never know what the day will hold for me, and I really like that. No RT, which is unfortunate. We've mostly got maritime customers, but it seems like there is quite a bit of railroad, construction, paper mill, and manufacturing customers, too.

It's a good gig. I'll let you know when another position opens up.

Thanks again for everything,

Morris
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Understanding Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking in Welds

Karsten Madsen | Apr 26, 2017

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/understanding-hydrogen-induced-cold-cracking-welds-karsten-madsen

"Like others, I probably contributed to some weld cracking earlier in my career through ignorance about the effects of hydrogen on some metals. Problem #1 … working as a young Welder, there was usually a stash of 7018 electrodes somewhere handy saving a trip to the holding oven. Problem #2 … I'm showing my age in saying that at that time, microwave ovens had not yet showed up in cafeterias to warm up meals. No problems though as electrode ovens did a good job of heating up leftover mac 'n cheese or a can of baked beans for a warm dinner.

Adding to our ignorance, the welding rods used in both of these circumstances seemed none the worse for the wear making welds that appeared to be acceptable. So the loosely applied rules about keeping the electrodes only in dry holding ovens and used within 4 hours did not seem to justify compliance. Moisture absorbed by SMAW electrode flux coating is only one source of hydrogen entering a weld deposit. It can also exist in FCAW wires, SAW flux or come from high ambient humidity or lubricants used in other manufacturing processes. Moisture of course is hydrogen and oxygen while oils and greases are usually hydrocarbons.

My intent here is to explain in understandable terms why it is so important to control weld exposure to hydrogen for those higher strength steels that are susceptible to hydrogen induced cold cracking (HICC). I’m not a Metallurgist and I may be taking some liberties in the following explanation, but to me at least hearing the effects of HICC first hand and my analogies to explain this phenomenon seem to make sense."

Click here to read more about the strategy.

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Why AINDT?

American Institute of Nondestructive TestingThe American Institute of Nondestructive Testing not only offers training for exciting, high-demand careers with competitive salaries—we offer blended learning, which the U.S. Department of Education has found to be the most effective method of learning. AINDT's blended learning program combines flexible, affordable instruction as well as hands-on training to complete your course. Best of all, our online courses offer the ultimate flexibility. You can study, watch video lectures, and even complete quizzes on your iPad, iPhone, and Android devices! Instructors are able to teach active learning courses over the internet, and students can work at home on other assignments at their own pace, which helps stimulate self-directed learning. Instructors are free to offer more individualized assistance to those who need it, rather than being in a large lecture hall. AINDT's blended learning is designed to ensure success. Are YOU ready for an exciting new direction? Call AINDT for details today. Instructors are on hand waiting to speak with you! (855) 313-0325.

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NDT Training

NDT TrainingAINDT offers your complete training to get you started on a rewarding, high-paying career in nondestructive testing. NDT is a constantly-evolving field in high demand in all manner of industries, from transportation to utility and power. If you are looking for an NDT training school that offers all the training you need to get into a rewarding career in nondestructive testing, look no further than AINDT! Our blended learning program offers you the convenience of online NDT training from wherever you may live, followed by hands-on NDT training at our Baxter, MN facility. The combination of our online NDT curriculum, followed by 18 days of hands-on training using the most up-to-date NDT equipment will give you the skills needed to enter into a rewarding career in nondestructive testing. Our NDT training program includes all required study material and books for your online training, which takes approximately 6 months. Our training program will prepare you for NDT certification by an NDT employer. The online portion of your NDT training can be started at any time, and hands-on training is available 6 times per year (every other month starting in January) and will be scheduled at the student's discretion. With job placement assistance and an amazing new career waiting for you, call AINDT today for more information: (855) 313-0325. Instructors are waiting to speak with you!

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Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection Market by Technique, Service, Vertical, and Geography

Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection Market by Technique, Service, Vertical, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022
Source: Research and Markets, June 2016
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/publication/m8ung6o/3750332

"The Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Market is Expected to Reach USD 11.39 Billion by 2022 at a CAGR of 8.30% Between 2016 and 2022"

"The non-destructive testing (NDT) and inspection market size was valued at USD 6.46 Billion in 2015 and is expected to increase to USD 11.39 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 8.30% between 2016 and 2022. The base year considered for the study is 2015 and the forecast period is between 2016 and 2022. This report provides a detailed analysis of the non-destructive inspection market based on technique, method, service, vertical, and geography. The demand for NDT is increasing all over the world due to regulations by governments for improving the overall safety of industrial assets, workforce, and the surrounding environment. Non-destructive testing is a process to test defects or discontinuities in materials, components, or assemblies without destroying its serviceability."

Click Here to read and evaluate this Global Forecast to 2022.

If you have questions regarding non-destructive testing or our complete Nondestructive Testing Certificate Program contact an AINDT Instructor today 855-313-0325.

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Save The Dates

Save The DatesOur current enrollment is starting for our UT Shearwave Weld Examination courses this year. Earn your certification and earn more opportunities for lucrative employment in the future! AINDT is offering this 5-day, intensive, hands-on course at our Baxter, Minnesota location on the following dates in 2017:

  • March 27th - March 31st
  • May 22nd - May 26th
  • July 31st - Aug. 4th
  • Oct. 2nd - Oct. 6th

If these dates don’t work out for you, we are offering custom dates to groups of four or more from your company. Contact us for details or to arrange your custom dates: (855) 313-0325. We look forward to speaking with you!

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Everything You Need

Everything You NeedOur ASNT Level III Basic Exam prep course is more than just reading. We have everything you need to succeed across a variety of platforms. In addition to reading assignments, our ASNT Level III Basic Exam prep course includes:

  • PowerPoint presentations of key points for each chapter
  • Flashcard question review
  • Practice quizzes
  • Video lectures for NDT math and method demonstrations
  • Multiple practice final exams

This engaging and exciting course gives you all the ingredients for a successful pass on the ASNT Level III Basic Exam. Work on your own time, at your own pace. Call (855) 313-0325 today for more information and to speak to one of our instructors. Your exciting new career awaits!

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NDT training services market is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period

Source:
http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ndt-services-market-by-testing-technique-type-vertical--geography---global-forecast-to-2022-300370291.html

NEWS PROVIDED BY
ReportBuyer
Nov 29, 2016, 23:38 ET

"NDT training services market is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period"

"The demand for NDT services would increase in the near future owing to the aging infrastructure and the increasing rate of new infrastructure development. Moreover, owing to the shift to advanced NDT techniques, such as phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) from traditional NDT techniques; there would be a need for skilled technicians. As a result, the NDT training services market is expected to grow because of the shortage for trained technicians for conducting NDT inspections in the NDT market.
"Oil & gas sector is expected to hold the largest share during the forecast period"

The demand for NDT technologies in the oil & gas sector is largely driven by government regulations for improving the safety of people and environment by avoiding oil spillage due to leaks, bursting of pipes, or any other accidents. As majority of the piping infrastructure and refineries are timeworn, it is imperative to conduct regular NDT inspections to ensure the integrity of these assets. The fall in oil prices since the end of 2014 are not expected to significantly impact the demand for NDT inspection on existing infrastructure. Thus, the oil & gas sector is expected to remain the largest market for NDT during the forecast period."

Click Here to read the rest of the article.

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Successful Start to Son's Career in NDT

"I am writing to let you know how happy my husband and I are with our decision to have our son Matthew train in NDT through your excellent program. As you know, he recently accepted an offer and began working at TEAM Industrial Testing in New Jersey. His training has him ahead of the curve for his position as an assistant Radiographer and that is a credit to your program.

Matthew is now working in refineries and power plants in and around the Philadelphia area and loves the challenge every day brings with his new career. He often talks of his great experience in the month of hands-on training in Baxter. The advice and life stories of your entire staff had a great impact on a young man who is both ambitious and excited about his future.

Matthew is the youngest of 6 children in our family, 5 of whom attended colleges and universities with varying degrees in diverse fields of education. It is safe to say his career outlook is as promising or even more so than some of his siblings. Your program casts new light on careers in the trade industry.

We wish you continued success with your program and will most certainly share our positive experience with others. Thank you again for giving our son a great education and an opportunity of a very bright future."

Sincerely,
Barb and Paul C.

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NDT Training: The Best Investment You'll Ever Make

Source: http://www.bergeng.com/blog/choose-a-career-in-ndt-nondestructive-testing/

Title: Choose A Career In Nondestructive Testing

Make A Great Living In A Growing Sector

"It’s no secret that the US economy, and the global economy in general, have seen some tough times. Many sectors were slow to recover from the 2008 recession, and for the American middle class, things aren’t getting much easier.

In many career fields, an expensive college education leads to a middle class income saddled with student loan debt. NDT (nondestructive testing) is one incredible exception. A career in nondestructive testing requires a relatively small investment in education, and the payoff is an excellent salary.

Just how excellent is that salary? Glad you asked. We researched education and salaries for various careers and compared the results to a typical NDT salary, as reported by PQNDT in their annual NDT salary survey. Check it out–and check out the full survey from PQNDT. Whether you’re a seasoned NDT professional or you’re considering a career in NDT, the survey from PQNDT is an incredible resource."

Please include attribution to http://www.bergeng.com/blog/ with this graphic.

Choose A Career In Nondestructive Testing: Make A Great Living In A Growing Sector

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Phased Array Tutorial

Source: Olympus
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/phased-array/?utm_content=sf47320560&utm_medium=spredfast&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=Olympus+IMS&sf47320560=1

"Ultrasonic phased array testing is a powerful NDT technology and one whose use is growing rapidly, however it can seem complex to a person who has not worked with it. This self-guided tutorial is a basic introduction to ultrasonic phased array testing, both for newcomers and for more experienced users who want a review of basic principles. It begins with what phased array testing is and how it works, then outlines some considerations for selecting probes and instruments, and ends with links to phased array application notes and a phased array glossary. In addition to text and illustrations it includes a series of interactive Flash files as learning tools."

Read More: http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/phased-array/?utm_content=sf47320560&utm_medium=spredfast&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=Olympus+IMS&sf47320560=1

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What is NDT and its Benefits

Source: Industrial Technical Services, What is NDT and its Benefitsb2ap3_thumbnail_industrial1-colored_20151102-143451_1.png
July 19, 2015

"What is NDT and its Benefits
Non-destructive testing is a descriptive term used for the examination of materials and components in such a way that allows materials to be examined without changing or destroying their usefulness. NDT or NDE can be used to find, size and locate surface and subsurface flaws and defects.

NDT plays a crucial role in everyday life and is necessary to assure safety and reliability. Typical examples are found in aircraft, motor vehicles, pipelines, bridges, trains, power stations, refineries, buildings and oil platforms which are all inspected using NDT."

Click Here to read about what NDT is typically used for.

The American Institute of Nondestructive Testing (AINDT) is licensed as a private career school with the Minnesota Office of Higher Education pursuant to Minnesota Statutes, sections 141.21 to 141.32.

Wonder why you should consider AINDT? Click Here and read about personalized hybrid teaching school for nondestructive testing.

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Industry Report: Emerging Growth Markets for NDT

Source: http://www.fros...zcxMjc3NDQ0OTI0, PR Newswire

    Have you ever wondered:
  • Which are the emerging growth markets for NDT inspection services?b2ap3_thumbnail_ndt_logo_2.gif
  • What are the key growth drivers and restraints for the emerging markets?
  • Who are the major participants in these markets, and what are their market shares?
  • Which are the strategic growth end-user industries?
  • What are the biggest challenges that market participants need to overcome to achieve growth?

Read this Industry Report on the Emerging Growth Markets for NDT to find the answers. Find out what emerging markets in NDT are generating revenue, which industries are dominating the market, and what you need to know about nondestructive testing.

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Emerging Growth Markets for NDT


b2ap3_thumbnail_iStock_000013773964_Medium_20130708-155821_1.jpgSource: 
http://www.ndt.org/news.asp?objectid=50229

The emerging markets for NDT inspection services are Brazil, China, India, and South Africa. Surprisingly, of these markets, China is the smallest. This is due to the trend in China wherein end-user industries prefer performing NDT inspections in-house rather than outsourcing. Similar to the global NDT inspection services market, these emerging growth markets are characterized by a large number of competitors, although most participants are relatively small. 

End-user industries such as oil and gas and power generation are the key drivers. High oil and gas prices have ensured that the operators earn significant revenue. This revenue has been duly invested back into developing the infrastructure in the energy industry.

To read more of the Industry Report,Click Here.

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