NDT News

NDT News

How Low Temperatures Impact Dye Penetrant Testing

In this article, we look at how lower inspection temperatures affect the performance of dye penetrant testing cleaners, penetrant and developers

The operating temperature range for penetrant inspection as specified in ASTM E1417 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing is 40°F to 125°F (4°C to 52°C), but how is the penetrant inspection affected at temperatures below 40°F (4°C) and can the inspection process be adjusted to achieve acceptable results?

To answer these questions, we evaluated SKC-S cleaner/remover, SKL-SP2 solvent removable dye penetrant and SKD-S2 non-aqueous developer at a range of temperatures in order to figure out what NDT inspectors can expect when using these, or similar quality dye penetrant products when inspecting at lower temperatures

Cleaning at lower temperatures

At lower temperatures in the range of 32°F – 50°F (0°C – 10°C), the solvent cleaner will take longer to dry.

We used 75°F (24°C) as our ambient, standard operating temperature, and observed how decreasing temperatures impacted how quickly the solvent cleaner dried. Below are our suggested drying time for solvent-based cleaner/removers at lower temperatures.
 

TemperatureCleaner Drying Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
50°F / 10°C 2 x Standard
40°F / 4°C 3 x Standard
32°F / 0°C 4 x Standard

It is critical to make sure the solvent has evaporated during the precleaning step either by wiping with a clean, lint free cloth or using air dryers to ensure a clean and dry part prior to penetrant application. Unevaporated cleaner remaining in indications can impede penetrant entry into the surface breaking indications.

Dwelling at lower temperatures

Penetration time should also be extended since the viscosity of penetrant increases with decreasing temperatures, which slows down penetration and can significantly impact the test results.
 

TemperatureDwell Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
45°F / 7°C 2 x Standard
32°F / 0°C 2.5 x Standard

Developer at lower temperatures

Developer drying time is more of a challenge and our tests showed the developing action is impeded because of the slower solvent evaporation. When the developer dries, the indications become fuzzy or show excessive bleed out.

Penetrant Developer

We were not able to get good results at 32°F (0°C) because the developer remained wet and did not dry within a reasonable amount of time. At 38 – 40°F (3 – 4°C), and with some air movement, developer film will dry at 5 times the standard time at 75°F (24°C).
 

TemperatureDeveloper Drying Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
40°F / 4°C 5 x Standard

A positive note is at low temperatures, we found good indications with extremely small and tight defects. The slow drying rate of the developer film allows greater bleed out of the penetrant from the defect. For large defects, longer development time caused excessive bleed out making indication interpretation more difficult.


Contact us if you need more help assessing your low temperature dye penetrant application, or have any questions on additional products for dye or liquid penetrant testing

Do you have any tips for low temperature dye penetrant testing or other non-destructive testing?
Share your ideas in the comments section below.

Source: https://magnaflux.com/Magnaflux/Blog/Low-Temperature-Dye-Penetrant-Testing?utm_source=linkedin&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=Education&utm_content=Low-Temp-Dye-Penetrant

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Exposing 10 Common Misunderstandings about Penetrant Testing

We reveal common penetrant inspection misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years

The liquid penetrant method of nondestructive testing has been used since the 1940’s. But even after being used by generations of NDT professionals, there are still some common areas of confusion or misunderstanding.

Here we set the record straight on 10 misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years.

 

1. The highest sensitivity penetrant is the best penetrant for my application

The best penetrant for an application is the one that finds the right indications with the least amount of money and time. Sometimes this means not using the highest sensitivity penetrant.

While it is true that a higher sensitivity penetrant will produce indications for very small discontinuities, a higher sensitivity penetrant will probably not give you the best inspection results if you only need to find medium discontinuities since you will see far more indications than are relevant to the inspection.

To start selecting a penetrant, review any governing specifications and work procedures for required sensitivity levels.

Take into consideration the surface finish and configuration of the part.

A high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant is appropriate for smooth, highly machined surfaces. However, a high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant may leave excessive fluorescent background on a rough cast part, making inspection difficult. 

A lower sensitivity fluorescent penetrant is a better choice for rough surfaces.

 

2. A penetrant indication is a discontinuity

A penetrant indication is the visual results or response of the penetrant test which must be interpreted to determine its relevance.

Penetrant indications must be evaluated by a qualified inspector to determine if they are nonrelevant or relevant.

Nonrelevant indications may be present on parts because of inherent surface roughness or seams. Fingerprints or fibers may also cause nonrelevant indications.

Relevant indications are the result of a discontinuity, or interruption in the physical structure of an object, and are evaluated according to acceptance criteria. After evaluation, the part is accepted as is, reworked or discarded.

 

3. Water washable penetrants are water based

Some water washable penetrants are water based. However, this is not always the case. A penetrant can be water washable and not contain water.

Water-washable penetrants contain surfactants which allow the penetrant to be easily removed from the part surface with water rinsing, regardless of if they are water-based or oil-based.

 

4. Penetrants are only used on nonferrous metals

Penetrants can be used to inspect ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant inspection will find discontinuities open to the surface on ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant testing should not be done on porous surfaces, as the pores will act as discontinuities to trap penetrant and prevent accurate inspection.

 

5. Penetrant will be able to penetrate a discontinuity that contains water

Penetrant cannot seep into a discontinuity if it is already filled with water or other liquid.

Likewise, penetrant will not displace or penetrate through paint, particulate, oil or grease.

This is one of the reasons why an important prerequisite for a valid penetrant inspection is to start with properly cleaned and dried parts.

 

6. Tanks and an inspection booth are required for penetrant inspection

Penetrant inspection is easy to adapt to different environments and job sites.

Penetrant inspection systems with stationary tanks and booths are commonly seen in production environments. However, both fluorescent and visible dye penetrants are available in aerosol cans and kits for convenience and portability.

 

Check out our Penetrant Process Guide for a visual reference outlining each step in the various penetrant inspection methods and to learn 5 tips for penetrant testing

 

7. Penetrant is all that is needed to perform a penetrant inspection

At a minimum, penetrant and developer are required to perform a water washable penetrant inspection.

Additional products such as cleaner/removers and emulsifiers are required for solvent removable and post emulsifiable penetrant inspections.

 

8. Special lighting is required for penetrant inspection

Fluorescent penetrants do require inspection in a darkened area with specification compliant UV lighting. The UV lights may be mounted or hand-held for flexibility and portability.

Visible dye penetrants only require adequate white light, typically 100 foot candles minimum, for inspection.

 

9. Penetrant inspection should be the final check in a manufacturing process

Penetrant inspection is useful immediately after any manufacturing process which is known to cause discontinuities. This allows parts to be reworked or discarded earlier in the manufacturing process, which saves time and cost.

Penetrant inspection may sometimes be performed more than once during the manufacture of a part.

The placement of each penetrant inspection process should be optimized to locate manufacturing-induced discontinuities and reduce the amount of scrap or rework done later in the manufacturing process.

 

10. Penetrant inspection can take place at any point in the manufacturing process

As discussed, it is important to perform penetrant inspection after manufacturing operations likely to cause discontinuities open to the surface in parts.

However, care must be taken to perform penetrant inspection prior to mechanical operations that will smear the metal surface. Machining operations such as shot blasting, peening or grinding may close surface discontinuities, which can prevent subsequent penetrant inspections from finding these discontinuities.

Penetrant inspection should take place before machining operations like shot blasting, peening or grinding unless chemical etching can be used between these operations and the penetrant testing to reliably expose the discontinuities.

 

What other common misunderstandings or mistakes have you seen? 
Share your knowledge in the comments section below.

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How to Improve Fluorescent NDT Process Control with LED UV Lighting [Case Study]

In this article, we show how an aerospace OEM manufacturer increased NDT inspection reliability and efficiency with wide-beam, overhead LED UV-A lamps

Mercury-vapor lamps are the biggest culprits when it comes to inconsistent UV lighting. Whether you’re using a hand-held 100W lamp, a larger 400W HID fixture or even low-pressure fluorescent tube lighting, the intensity and coverage of the lamp can change dramatically throughout the day.

Not only do mercury-vapor lamps take time to warm up to full intensity, but any variation in the line voltage directly translates to a change in intensity. Power fluctuations can change from day to day, or even from shift to shift depending on what equipment is running in the plant.

Even with regular maintenance, the intensity of a particular lamp will fade over time as the bulb is used. An inspection booth with both stationary fixtures and hand-held lamps will have different coverage depending on the age of the individual bulbs and when they were last replaced.

The move from mercury-vapor lamps to LED UV lights helps to eliminate these kinds of variations, but swapping out existing lamps with LEDs can bring its own challenges.

Magnaflux is working with our customers to better understand the issues that end-users face. Below, we explain the challenges one aerospace OEM manufacturer faced, and how Magnaflux helped address their challenges.

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After decades of pushing bachelor’s degrees, U.S. needs more tradespeople

ndt training school


PBS - Education Aug 29, 2017 1:40 PM EDT

FONTANA, Calif. — At a steel factory dwarfed by the adjacent Auto Club Speedway, Fernando Esparza is working toward his next promotion.

Esparza is a 46-year-old mechanic for Evolution Fresh, a subsidiary of Starbucks that makes juices and smoothies. He’s taking a class in industrial computing taught by a community college at a local manufacturing plant in the hope it will bump up his wages.

It’s a pretty safe bet. The skills being taught here are in high demand. That’s in part because so much effort has been put into encouraging high school graduates to go to college for academic degrees rather than for training in industrial and other trades that many fields like his face worker shortages.

Now California is spending $6 million on a campaign to revive the reputation of vocational education, and $200 million to improve the delivery of it.

Read More...

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American Institute of Nondestructive Testing Expands Training Capabilities

Digital Radiography Training Courses The American Institute of Nondestructive Testing has expanded their training capabilities by purchasing Carestream computed and digital radiography equipment to add to their 6400 sq ft training facility. They offer online and hands-on training for both Digital and Computed Radiography.

"We will continue to invest in the newest equipment to provide the highest quality training for our industry and to meet the needs of our clientele," says Don Booth CEO, "Also, when I started the American Institute of Nondestructive Testing I knew that offering only online NDT education without a fully functional hands-on training facility would not be sufficient. I am a firm believer in online training for many aspects of learning, but the hands-on portion, where you can directly interact with students, really solidifies the learning experience."

The American Institute of Nondestructive has also recently launched their online ASNT Level III Prep Courses to help prepare individuals for their Level III exams.

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Another Happy Graduate of AINDT!

Hey guys,

I just finished my first week and thought I'd share what it has been like. Of course, I'm just assisting on these for now, but once I get my certs, I'll be out there on my own doing this stuff.

Day 1: MT on welds for a piece to be used by a private space exploration company.

Day2: UT lamination scans on large steel plates used for construction of a new ferry.

Day 3: PT on welds for ferry construction; UT shear wave on pipe welds

Day 4: UT thickness gauging the hull of a small freighter

Day 5: UT thickness gauging safety pins on the top of a grain elevator (about 100 feet up, harnessed and dangling off the roof); MT on a repair weld for the boom of a cement truck

Never know what the day will hold for me, and I really like that. No RT, which is unfortunate. We've mostly got maritime customers, but it seems like there is quite a bit of railroad, construction, paper mill, and manufacturing customers, too.

It's a good gig. I'll let you know when another position opens up.

Thanks again for everything,

Morris
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Everyday NDT

AINDT offers top-notch training in for an exciting new career in a variety of fields that will always be in high demand. But what IS NDT? Nondestructive testing creates a safer world for all of us in our daily lives. For example, at least 126,696,000 lug nuts were NDT-tested on the 7,918,601 cars sold in the US in 2014. 61,064 structurally-deficient bridges require NDT testing for their 215 million daily crossings. Since 2007, two notable bridge failures occurred in the US due to NDT-detectable problems. Starting to get the picture? NDT testing is used in just about every major field you can think of, including 1,726,359 miles of oil and gas pipeline in the US as of 2013. With 140,000 rail miles in the US, 2014 brought 295 derailments due to structural failure which NDT detects. NDT is an ever-growing field with increasing demand. Billions of airline passengers also benefit from NDT. If you're ready for an important new career in NDT, call today to speak to one of our instructors for more information. Competitive salaries and job placement assistance are all part of NDT. Call AINDT today! (855) 313-0325.

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9 Transparently Amazing Facts About X-Rays

9 Transparently Amazing Facts About X-RaysIn 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen, a professor of Physics in Worzburg, Bavaria, was the first to find a way to peer inside the body without surgery. On the evening of November 8, he was experimenting with the conduction of electricity through low-pressure gases using an induction coil and a partially-evacuated glass tube when he accidentally discovered a mysterious ray capable of lighting up a fluorescent screen a few meters away.

On the evening of November 8, he was experimenting with the conduction of electricity through low-pressure gases using an induction coil and a partially-evacuated glass tube when he accidentally discovered a mysterious ray capable of lighting up a fluorescent screen a few meters away.

When he passed his hand between the ray and the screen, he glimpsed a shadow of his own bones. Further experimentation showed that the screen could be replaced by a photographic plate—and the x-ray was born. Roentgen would later earn the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery.

http://mentalfloss.com/article/70900/9-transparently-amazing-facts-about-x-rays

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Understanding Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking in Welds

Karsten Madsen | Apr 26, 2017

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/understanding-hydrogen-induced-cold-cracking-welds-karsten-madsen

"Like others, I probably contributed to some weld cracking earlier in my career through ignorance about the effects of hydrogen on some metals. Problem #1 … working as a young Welder, there was usually a stash of 7018 electrodes somewhere handy saving a trip to the holding oven. Problem #2 … I'm showing my age in saying that at that time, microwave ovens had not yet showed up in cafeterias to warm up meals. No problems though as electrode ovens did a good job of heating up leftover mac 'n cheese or a can of baked beans for a warm dinner.

Adding to our ignorance, the welding rods used in both of these circumstances seemed none the worse for the wear making welds that appeared to be acceptable. So the loosely applied rules about keeping the electrodes only in dry holding ovens and used within 4 hours did not seem to justify compliance. Moisture absorbed by SMAW electrode flux coating is only one source of hydrogen entering a weld deposit. It can also exist in FCAW wires, SAW flux or come from high ambient humidity or lubricants used in other manufacturing processes. Moisture of course is hydrogen and oxygen while oils and greases are usually hydrocarbons.

My intent here is to explain in understandable terms why it is so important to control weld exposure to hydrogen for those higher strength steels that are susceptible to hydrogen induced cold cracking (HICC). I’m not a Metallurgist and I may be taking some liberties in the following explanation, but to me at least hearing the effects of HICC first hand and my analogies to explain this phenomenon seem to make sense."

Click here to read more about the strategy.

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Corporate NDT Training

Corporate NDT TrainingThe American Institute of Nondestructive Testing (AINDT) offers online and hands-on training for your company. Simply set up a corporate account with us for easy billing and additional discounts. All individual classes include study material, access to our online learning system, and instructor support via phone, video conference and/or email. Our online Level I and II final exams are fully proctored by Examity online proctoring services to ensure the highest level of integrity for your company's training needs. Unlike most NDT schools we have no minimum class size or limited training schedules. We will work with your schedule to get you the training you need. We are a fully-staffed NDT school, offering training in UT, RT, MT, PT, VT and radiation safety. Our 6,200 square foot facility includes all the equipment and flawed specimens you'll need to complete your hands-on training. Call us today (855) 313-0325 and we will work with you to customize an NDT program fits your budget and schedule!

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5 Most Popular Inspection Techniques for the Oil and Gas Industry

By Lawrence Agbezuge
April 17, 2017

"The oil and gas industry operates according to stringent standards that primarily strive to keep equipment running efficiently while maintaining workplace safety. Conforming to such standards is challenging because oil and gas operations involve drilling (both on land and offshore), reservoir engineering, well servicing, production services, refining and transportation of petroleum products, and many other operations.
Not only is it challenging to conform to industry standards, but it is expensive to maintain a safe workplace and to protect workers from harm. It is necessary to equip workers with protective apparel; to continually train them on practicing safety procedures; and to keep them up to date on practicing improved equipment inspection techniques.

What is NDT?

Many NDT (Non Destructive Testing) methods are utilized in the oil and gas industry. The best NDT methods address issues regarding safety, equipment reliability, and environmental protection and government regulations."

Click Here to find out the greatest benefits of NDT

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Why AINDT?

American Institute of Nondestructive TestingThe American Institute of Nondestructive Testing not only offers training for exciting, high-demand careers with competitive salaries—we offer blended learning, which the U.S. Department of Education has found to be the most effective method of learning. AINDT's blended learning program combines flexible, affordable instruction as well as hands-on training to complete your course. Best of all, our online courses offer the ultimate flexibility. You can study, watch video lectures, and even complete quizzes on your iPad, iPhone, and Android devices! Instructors are able to teach active learning courses over the internet, and students can work at home on other assignments at their own pace, which helps stimulate self-directed learning. Instructors are free to offer more individualized assistance to those who need it, rather than being in a large lecture hall. AINDT's blended learning is designed to ensure success. Are YOU ready for an exciting new direction? Call AINDT for details today. Instructors are on hand waiting to speak with you! (855) 313-0325.

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NDT Careers

NDT CareersOne of the greatest advantages of a career in nondestructive testing with AINDT is its reliability. Nondestructive testing is a crucial field that is always in demand. Pipelines, bridges, motor vehicles, buildings, aircraft, watercraft, power stations, trains, oil platforms, and refineries are all inspected using NDT testing methods. As a graduate of AINDT, you will be qualified to start a career in a vast array of fields including aerospace, aviation, auto and boat racing, construction, manufacturing, oil and gas development, amusement parks, railroad, and even alternative energy including nuclear, wind, and solar. Start an exciting, rewarding new career with job security and competitive salary ranges that show an increase every year. Instructors are waiting to personally speak with you so call today and get started on your new career tomorrow! (855) 313-0325.

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Personalized Hybrid Training School

If you are considering a new career in nondestructive testing, contact AINDT today. We are a personalized hybrid training school for nondestructive testing, that prides itself in top-notch education, a state-of-the-art facility, great relationships with top employers in the NDT industry, and more. AINDT is individualized—we take great strides to personally get to know each student--not only their learning style but their goals for a new career path. We are not a high-pressure sales company. We are passionate about what we do, and we do it well. You won't get an automated voicemail system. Our instructors are on hand to personally take your calls and answer all your questions. At AINDT, we want you to know our school, understand the career field of nondestructive testing, and make the right choice for you and your life. You will love your new career with NDT. Call us today to get started: (855) 313-0325 or visit us on the web at www.trainingndt.com

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Corrosion Under Insulation: The 7 Inspection Methods You Must Know About

Melissa Syvrais | Apr 14, 2016
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/corrosion-under-insulation-7-inspection-methods-you-must-syvrais-1

April 4, 2016 - Author: Charles Tremblay

As we discussed in our previous article, corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the most difficult corrosion processes to prevent. The reason for that is, by and large, no matter the precautions taken, water invariably seeps into the insulation and begins its dirty work—sometimes unseen until process leakage occurs. Data shows that about 60% of pipe leaks are caused by CUI. That’s not good.

CUI is difficult to find because the insulation covers the corrosion problem until it is too late. Removing insulation, inspecting, and then reinstating the insulation after inspection is an expensive process. Inspecting without removing insulation and weather jackets greatly reduces the cost of inspections. Non-destructive testing methods to detect CUI in such a way is therefore a major benefit to the industry.

There are a number of methods used today to inspect for CUI. No one method is ever used by itself—several methods complement each other for optimal results, but that’s not the object of this article.

The most common and straightforward way to inspect for corrosion under insulation is to cut plugs in the insulation that can be removed to allow for ultrasonic testing. The other commonly used methods are radiography, and complete insulation removal. More advanced methods include pulsed eddy current. CLICK HERE to read the seven most common methods of inspecting for CUI with their pros and cons.

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Why Choose AINDT?

Why Choose AINDT?AINDT is the nondestructive testing school that offers individual training for NDT technicians. We offer versatility, with both online NDT education and hands-on NDT training at our fully staffed and fully equipped 6,400 square foot facility. Since AINDT is the original NDT blended learning school in the U.S., we can customize a program to meet your company's needs with either online or hands-on NDT education, or a combination of the two. AINDT offers excellent customer service, always on hand to answer all questions, and handle every call personally. We offer the highest quality NDT education possible. AINDT cares about every student and gives each individual the time and personal attention they require to succeed. Call us today for more information and to get started on your exciting NDT training. (855) 313-0325.

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How To Start Your Career In Nondestructive Testing

How To Start Your Career In Nondestructive TestingAINDT (American Institute of Nondestructive Testing) can get you started on an exciting, rewarding new career in a lucrative, growing field. Nondestructive testing is used in all areas of modern life, and you can be a part of it! AINDT offers a Nondestructive Testing Technologies Certificate Program that will get you on your way to your high-paying new career. Best of all, we offer on-demand online training—enroll today and start tomorrow! The Nondestructive Testing Technologies Certificate Program also offers a complete curriculum, including all needed materials and textbooks. To finish your training, you will complete a hands-on training program for 18 days at our Baxter, MN facility. Your new rewarding career awaits with AINDT. Call today and talk to one of our instructors: (855) 313-0325. We look forward to speaking with you!

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New Complete NDT Training

Feb10 InspirationalIf you are looking for nondestructive testing certifications, AINDT could not make the process simpler to obtain your NDT Training online. AINDT's Nondestructive Testing Technologies Certificate Program is thorough and complete. Our online training is on demand—enroll today and start tomorrow! What's more, our interactive learning management system is second-to-none. At your convenience, you will complete reading assignments, view PowerPoint presentations, interact with our flashcard reviews, watch instructor video lectures, complete graded quizzes, and write essays. Our program contains your complete curriculum, including all required textbooks and study material. Each student receives a complete set of ASNT personal training publications which include classroom training books and student lecture guides: your own personal library of NDT knowledge. The final step is hands-on training, which will be completed over 18 days at our Baxter, MN facility. You will use various types of equipment used for each of the NDT methods covered in your online theory courses, and with the help of our instructors you will complete actual NDT examinations, interpret results, and document your findings. Call today for more information (855) 313-0325 and visit us on the web. Get started on a rewarding, competitive new career in NDT today with AINDT!
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Radiation Safety Online

AINDT offers many types of NDT training. One of these is a Radiation Safety course online. For $799 inclusive, AINDT offers this 40-hour course on Industrial Radiography and is designed to meet the training requirements for formal certification in Radiation Safety for both X-ray and gamma Radiographers. This course also discusses the requirements of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and outlines the "Suggested State Regulations for Controlling Radiation (SSRCR)." This 40 hour course exceeds the recommendations and training outline set forth by the NRC training manual available as NUREG/BR-0024 Working Safely in Gamma Radiography and its subsequent ASNT revisions. This course addresses required training topics for radiographic personnel specified in federal (10 CFR 34.43) and equivalent state radiation control regulations, as well as the topics listed in Appendix A to ASNT CP-105-2011 (excluding neutron radiography.) If you're interested in a rewarding career in radiography, contact AINDT about our online Radiation Safety course. Visit us on the web or call for more information (855) 313-0325 today. Instructors are waiting to speak with you!
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Hire Our Graduates!

Feb02 InspirationalLooking for well trained, qualified employees? Look no further than graduates of AINDT! Graduates of our Nondestructive Technologies Certificate Program are serious about NDT! Now is the time to invest in employees who have invested in themselves for a rewarding, important career in nondestructive testing. Our graduates have completed their Level I and II training in UT, RT, MT, PT, and VT NDT methods, as well as their 40 Radiation Safety Course. Contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to schedule a visit to meet our graduates during their hands-on training or to receive resumes. AINDT also offers NDT training for your current technicians. We look forward to assisting you!
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