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AWS CWI Exam Pass Rate: How to Pass (And What to Do if You Fail)

AWS CWI Exam Pass Rate: How to Pass (And What to Do if You Fail)The AWS does not post AWS CWI exam pass rate online. Yet, estimates say that only 30-40% of people who write the CWI exam pass the test on the first attempt. And because the exam costs $1065 in 2018, you want to pass this exam to avoid paying this hefty fee again.

Read on to learn how to pass the CWI exam the first time, and how to prepare if you need to retake it.

What Areas You Need To Know

A CWI exam is challenging. That's because a CWI has to be able to accurately complete welding inspections to specific codes.

A CWI has to have a good understanding of testing methods and drawings and specs. He or she must understand the welding process and be fluent in welding terms.

The CWI exam is comprehensive and covers all these key points. Make sure you review how to become a CWI with these 5 steps.

Create a Test-Taking Strategy

One of the most important things you need to do in order to pass the CWI exam is to have a test strategy.

You should know how much time you can spend on each question before moving on. The passing grade on this exam is 72%. That means that if you are stumped on a question, move on.

Each question is only worth 2.2% of the total exam. It is in your best interest to ensure you have time to complete the entire test than to spend priceless minutes on a tricky question.

Check Your Work

Part 3 of the test is open book. You will be able to use the code book to look up answers.

Don't make the mistake of being overconfident and skip looking up the answer in the codebook. The examiners allow the book for a reason. Codes can be difficult and there is a lot of information.

Verify your answers each time to avoid losing marks in this section.

Know What You Don't Know

If you are unsuccessful the first time you take the CWI exam, don't despair. You have options. You can retake the entire test or just specific parts such as Part A.

Before preparing for your second attempt, carefully review where you went wrong the first time. You will be able to see your score for each of the 3 parts of the exam on your CWI test results.

If you scored an average of over 72% in total but got less than 72% on only 1 part, you may retake only that part.

Besides looking at just your score, also look at the topics you struggled with. then you can focus on brushing up your knowledge on those key areas.

Final Thoughts on AWS CWI Exam Pass Rate

Thank for reading! We hope you found this guide on the CWI exam helpful. Remember, just because the AWS CSI exam pass rate is low for first-time test takers, there is no reason you can't ace the test if you prepare and plan your strategy.

Next, review these 5 tips to help you pass the CWI exam.

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How to Pass the CWI Test: A Complete Guide

How to Pass the CWI Test: A Complete GuideAll around the country, welders can make a dependable middle class living off of their skills and knowledge. However, you need to be able to pass your exam to become a high paid certified welder. If you're not prepared to take the CWI test, all the talent in the world won't amount to much.

Here are three things to remember to ensure that you pass your test on the first try.

1. Prepare in Advance

No matter what the test is, if you don't make a serious effort to prepare, you're not going to do well. This is especially true for a welding exam.

Even if you're an experienced welder who has been at it for 20 years, you might not be prepared for the exam. Over time, even the best welder can build up some bad habits that the CWI testers will fail you for.

There is a lot of reference material to read over before you arrive on test day. It should be reviewed a few times to ensure that you know what to expect.

Take a few practice exams that include time restraints. That way you'll be prepared for the pressure of taking your CWI exam. Ask a few colleagues if they've had good experiences with an exam company so you can get the help you need.

2. Go In With a Testing Strategy

There are three main parts of your CWI test. Each portion has its own unique challenges and without a plan of attack, you could end up wasting precious testing time. Taking some practice exams will help you figure out how much time you can spend on each question.

If you haven't taken a test in a while, you might forget that common mistake of spending too much time on a single question. Spending 20 minutes on a single question could leave dozens of easier questions unfinished.

Go in knowing your strengths and weaknesses. If you have a weakness on a particular concept, skip those difficult questions for the end. You can go back and devote your spare time to them once you've covered everything you know well.

Arrive with pencils, erasers, calculators and everything else that you need. Be clear about what is allowed and what isn't.

3. Check Your Work Carefully

Depending on which test you're going to be taking, you need to know how to use the codebook. If you're not a veteran inspector, you might not be on top of what is and isn't kosher.

Some inspectors will remember codes off the top of their head and will breeze through Part C of the exam. If you're feeling a little bit rusty, take some time to refresh your knowledge.

You Can Pass Your CWI Test on the First Try

If you don't know your way around the expectations of the CWI exam, you're going to struggle to pass your test on the first try. The CWI test is easy if you adequately prepare, take time to focus, and stay calm during the day of the exam.

If you need an incentive to stay motivated, check out just how much money you could be making.

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American Institute of Nondestructive Testing (AINDT) will provide their CWI Exam Prep Course in Houston, Texas

American Institute of Nondestructive Testing (AINDT) will provide their CWI Exam Prep Course in Houston, Texas The booming economy and dramatic increase in construction across the country has spurred a renewed effort to rectify the shortage of skilled labor. Paramount in that effort is to increase the number of qualified welders, and where there is welding there needs to be welding inspectors. The various industries are working diligently to increase the number of skilled welders and with that the demand for Certified Welding Inspectors (CWI) is increasing exponentially. The American Institute of Nondestructive Testing (AINDT) is filling this need by expanding its' operations to Houston, Texas.

"Our instructors have decades of welding inspection experience and are deftly involved with the American Welding Society, providing the most up to date training for the ever-evolving CWI exam," stated AINDT CEO Don Booth. "We not only prepare our students for taking the CWI exam but also provide them with real life experiences from industry experts."

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How to Become a CWI in 5 Steps

how to become a cwiThe responsibility of a certified welding inspector is extensive. The CWI manages the operation's oversight. It's hard work but the outlook for a CWI career path is growing and pays well for those willing to shine.

The average CWI salary is $72K/year with increasing demand. The field thrives no matter the economic ups and downs. CWI jobs offer competitive benefits, too, further bonding its opportunity.

Would you like to learn how to become a CWI, tapping this in-demand field? Read on and follow this career path.

Arcing Your Career: How to Become a CWI

A CWI career has a low barriers-to-entry via certification. This is a lucrative opportunity for those wanting to scale their welding prowess. Or, desiring a shift and arc into a new career path. Let's go through the steps on how to become a certified welding inspector.

1. Understand Where You Stand

You'll need to meet an education and experience threshold before you can take the CWI test. The CWI exam requires a 72% passing score (or higher).

Do you meet these AWS requirements?

  • 4/year Bachelors (or higher) or Welding Engineering/Tech + 1/year work
  • 3/year Associates (or higher) or Eng tech/science/Phys. tech + 2/year work
  • 2/year Engineering/Tech courses + Bachelors (or higher) + 3/year work
  • 1/year Trade/Voc. courses + 4/year work
  • HS Diploma (or GED) + 5/year work
  • 8th Grade + 9/year work
  • >8th Grade + 12/year work

Continue work or go back-to-school to fill the needed gaps. Higher education can gap 1-year increments. Push through!

2. Get Your Eyes Checked

You're required to pass a vision test alongside the AWS certified exam.

The process includes:

  1. Filing the VAF (Visual Acuity Form) within 7-months of the exam
  2. Having an eye exam performed by a certified medical professional

The exam factors one's ability to read Jaeger J2 within 12-inches. Corrective lenses are accepted including contacts. The examiner will also check for colorblindness.

3. Study, Study, Study

AWS exams cost $850 - $1,065 depending on membership so you'll want to get it right the first time. There are 3-parts and grants several hours to complete.

Begin studying early, and often:

  1. Go through the official AWS study material
  2. Apply your knowledge alongside our prep course
  3. Consider optional welding inspector training

You're also welcome to attend weeklong seminars. These events are helpful with prep, covering all sections you'll face on the exam.

4. Practice with Dummy Exams

You'll find AWS practice exams through:

  • Amazon
  • Udemy
  • Scribd

Work your way through these practice exams as if they're the real thing.

Include practicing:

  • The 150-question fundamental questions
  • Practical experience including tool identification and use
  • Memorizing and identifying the D1.1 code

5. Take the Real CWI Test

It's time!

  1. Apply for the exam by filing the CWI Initial Application
  2. Use the CWI schedule to choose your destination, and submit forms
  3. Confirm details with AWS
  4. Attend and take the exam

It takes a lot of work gaining the right experience and training. You'll study hard and commit a decent amount of money. But, it'll be worth it once you pass!

Create a Bond with Your Next Opportunity

Trade jobs prove viability no matter what's shaking the economy. A welding career creates stability and incredible income opportunities. Learning how to become a CWI launches this trajectory toward rewarding work.

Ready to apply and grow? Get in touch, learn about our ASNT Level III prep course.

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5 Tips to Pass the CWI Exam

cwi examIf you want to become a CWI, you need some welding experience. And, you need to pass the CWI exam. The amount of experience you need varies on your education level, but the CWI exam is always the same.

The CWI text is always three parts. You get two hours for each section. They focus on fundamentals, practical application, and code application.

The best thing you can do is be fully prepared. We've put together a list of 5 things you can do to prepare for your test.

1. Create a Study Plan

Everyone learns a little differently. While the test is the same for everyone, your study plan needs to tailored specifically to you.

If flash cards work for you, then start there. If they don't, then you should try reading the content over and taking notes.

There's no one full-proof study plan, the key is to know what works for you and build your plan around it. Most plans should contain more than one study method.

2. Just Reading the Content isn't Enough

Just reading your books or study guides isn't enough to learn the content. You need to actually study it.

Focus and make sure that you are absorbing as much of the information as possible. Don't just skim the material, try to really understand it. As you study try not to just memorize the information, you want to ask yourself why these procedures need to been done in certain ways.

It's a long test, so the better grasp you have on the material, the more likely you will be able to recall it under the stress of the CWI exam.

3. Take Welding Certification Practice Tests

The CWI prep courses and practice tests have been made to help you understand what information is going to be on the CWI exam. By bringing the relevant information to the forefront, you have much better odds of passing the exam.

What makes it even better is that both the courses and the practice tests are designed so you can go at your own pace. That gives you the opportunity to really absorb the material.

4. Know What the Sections are About

It can be really helpful to your self-study to know the breakdown and the number of questions in each of the sections.

Part A is all about your fundamental knowledge; this section is 150 questions. Part B is all about inspection both welding and nondestructive testing; it is 46 questions. Part C is the only open book section and it's about the codebook; this is 46 questions as well.

You have to get 72 percent on all of the sections to pass.

5. Teach a Friend

A lot of times, the best way to know if you actually understand something is to teach someone. As you're explaining it to someone who has no knowledge about welding, you can really tell what you do and don't know.

Teaching a subject has proven to help you remember it, this is called the protege effect.

Pass Your CWI Exam

Passing your CWI exam is a big step toward your future, studying for it can be stress full.

However, if you follow the tips we've laid out, it should be as stress-free as possible. If you are interested in courses or have any questions you can contact us.

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Career Change: Become a Certified Welding Inspector

How Much Money Can I Make as an AWS CWI?Did you know that more than 50 percent of all products require wielding at various stages of the manufacturing process? The building and construction industry also heavily requires the work of welders.

Welding inspectors work to ensure the safety and integrity of things made by welded machinery.

If you have a keen eye for detail and have a passion for technical roles, this is a career you can pursue.

In this article, we're telling you what it takes to become a welding inspector.

Gain Welding Education and Experience

There are several paths to becoming a certified welding inspector.

You can start your journey by pursuing a bachelor's degree in welding technology, welding engineering or a closely related field. After graduating, you'll only need at least 1 year of welding experience to qualify for certification by the American Welding Society.

If you have an associate degree in welding technology, welding engineering or a closely related field, you'll need a minimum of 2 years of wielding-based experience to qualify for certification.

Another option is to join a vocational training institution and get welding training. This is a popular path among the vast majority of aspiring welding inspectors. There are many welding trade schools, and they're cheaper than pursuing a degree. You'll, however, need at least 4 years of welding-based work experience to qualify for AWS certification.

Holders of a high school diploma, along with those whose highest level of schooling is 8th grade, must have a minimum of 5 and 9 years of welding experience, respectively.

Evidently, the best way to become a welding inspector is to start out as a welder. After gaining sufficient welding experience, you can then seek certification as a welding inspector.

Nurture the Skills Required to Become a Competent Welding Inspector

Beyond obtaining welding knowledge, there are essential skills you need to master.

For example, you need a high attention to detail. The job involves scrutinizing weldments, some in places that are not easily visible to the eye. A keen eye for detail will enable you to spot anything that doesn't meet the applicable standards.

Strong technical writing skills are crucial, as well. After conducting an inspection, you'll write detailed reports of your findings. Analytical skills are also crucial, since your role will involve studying engineering drawings.

Get Certified by the American Welding Society

The last step to becoming a welding inspector is to get certified by the AWS.

The Society offers 3 levels of welding inspector certifications:

  • Certified Associate Welding Inspector
  • Certified Welding Inspector
  • Senior Certified Welding Inspector

Each certification has different minimum qualification requirements. Generally, though, the level of minimum qualifications increases with the seniority of certification.

To get certified, you must successfully complete a certification examination, as well as pass a vision test. Certified welding inspectors must renew their certification every 3 years.

The Path to Becoming a Welding Inspector Is Clear

From increased employment prospects to higher compensation, becoming a welding inspector is a great career move. What's more, we have given you the information you need to make a switch to this career.

And that's not at all. We offer a CWI exam prep course that will get you the best preparation you need to ace the certification exam.

Contact us for more information.

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How Much Money Can I Make as an AWS CWI?

Have you decided to pursue an AWS CWI certification? If this is the case, you have probably spent countless hours doing your research to make sure you meet the requirements.

But of course, what you really want to know is how much money you can make as a CWI. If you want to know, keep reading this article.

What is a CWI?

Before you learn how much a CWI makes, you need to learn a little bit more about the nature of the work.

A CWI stands for a certified welding inspector. CWIs are essential to a variety of construction fields.

CWIs have a number of important responsibilities each day to ensure the quality of a construction project.

When working at a job site, CWIs have to inspect for a variety of things such as compliance with city and state laws, federal safety regulations, and company-specific guidelines.

When a construction project is in full swing, an inspector has to monitor the welding operations to ensure compliance to welding procedures.

If you want to become a CWI, you need 5 years industry experience if you have a high school diploma, if you do not have a high school diploma don’t fret, you can still become a CWI but will need more industry experience. It also helps to have a background in engineering, CWI prep courses, or a similar field.

The American Welding Society offers a certified welding inspector certification you can complete.

Reasons to Become a CWI

Aside from a substantial salary, there are other reasons why many people choose to become CWIs.

For starters, the benefits are great. When you're part of a company, you will receive health insurance, 401k, and other benefits.

If you don't like to stay put in one place, a CWI career might be the right move for you. Becoming a CWI will allow you more freedom and more travel opportunities to choose where you want to work.

Also, when you become a CWI, you never stop learning. You will get the opportunity to learn from professionals and develop your skills further.

How Much Does a CWI Make?

For a lot of people deciding on a specific career depends a lot on the salary. It's no different for CWIs.

The average salary for a CWI pays $72K a year, with overtime included. The hourly rate is about $26.64 an hour. Most reports show CWIs rack up an average of 17 hours of overtime a week.

The salary of a CWI has grown over the past few years. In 2013, the average salary was $58,000 a year. This number was an increase from $38,410 a year in 2012.

Of course, this salary varies by location. Some of the lowest salaries for a CWI reported were $44K a year in the state of Idaho.

Meanwhile, New York and DC have some of the highest salaries in the industry reported between $80k and 83K a year.

Becoming an AWS CWI: The Bottom Line

There's no doubt CWIs can make a decent salary. Salaries depending on location can range from $44K to $83K a year. Not to mention you'll receive competitive benefits and a chance to travel.

Are you interested in obtaining an AWS CWI certification? Look no further.

Let us help you pursue your career with our complete CWI exam prep course.

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Our CWI prep course will ensure you are sufficiently knowledgeable in Nondestructive Testing

knowledgeable Nondestructive TestingI’ve received a lot of concerns from prospective students regarding Nondestructive Testing questions in the CWI exam.

Many who have taken CWI prep courses at other institutions found that the coverage of fundamental NDT knowledge is lacking. I imagine this is because most companies that offer CWI prep courses have instructors who may be knowledgeable in practical welding and visual inspection but may not have an NDT background.

AWS does not expect CWIs to be deftly knowledgeable in NDT methods but the newest version of the exam does expect CWIs to have a basic understanding of Ultrasonics, Radiography, Liquid Penetrant, Magnetic Particle and Electromagnetic Testing since NDT of welds is very ingrained in the CWIs work.

AINDT instructors are not only CWIs with a practical welding background but are also ASNT Level IIIs. I myself worked as a code welder am an SCWI and an ASNT level III.

AINDT not only provides CWI prep courses but we also provide Level I, II and III training for Nondestructive Testing in several methods. Rest assured that our CWI prep course will ensure you are sufficiently knowledgeable in Nondestructive testing.

Sign up today! www.trainingndt.com

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Addressing The Nde Technician Shortage

6e9e288c d2af 4dcf af0f 1522571aac82 hAs Demand Outpaces Supply, the Oil and Gas Industry Looks for Creative Solutions

Ask anyone in the pipeline industry, and they’ll tell you there’s a serious shortage of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technicians in North America. A combination of stronger regulations for legacy lines and new construction, plus a lengthy certification process, has created a situation where demand for technicians outpaces supply.

As the name suggests, NDE provides pipeline owner/operators with a way to validate inline inspection (ILI) findings and evaluate anomalies without the risk of further damage. NDE technicians use magnetic particles, radiography, and high-frequency sound waves to locate anomalies in pipelines. In addition, they can confirm the severity of those anomalies – and that helps operators prioritize repairs and reduce the need for costly multiple excavations.

But the success of NDE largely depends on the technician’s ability to analyze results. And, the specific tools and technologies used to conduct NDE can vary from company to company. To ensure accuracy, it’s critical that technicians know how to use the equipment and how to interpret the results of testing.

And the only way to guarantee that is through experience – lots of it. All technicians must complete a combination of classroom and field training to earn NDE certification. Classroom hours are more theory- Addressing The NDE Technician Shortage As Demand Outpaces Supply, the Oil and Gas Industry Looks for Creative Solutions F U T U R E T H I N K I N G based, and students can apply what they’ve learned to a broad range of industries, from structural steel to pipelines. After completing the requisite classroom hours, students complete 2,000 + hours of supervised, industry-specific fieldwork, unique to their area of NDE focus.

So far, there’s no single, permanent way to create a pool of trained, qualified NDE technicians, but there have been some promising developments. Many colleges and technical schools currently offer two-year programs focused on NDE training. In addition, the industry has started to reach out to college graduates with new certification programs that reduce the training hours required for trainees with four-year degrees in engineering or science.

Pipeline service companies are also finding creative ways to build a larger pool of available NDE technicians: Some are pulling technicians from other departments or even other industries. Because there is a common knowledge base for non-destructive technology (NDT), a technician with years of experience in aerospace, for example, can transition to pipelines.

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Breaking Down How to Use Magnetic Flux Indicators and QQIs

Magnetic particle test pieces will help you maintain your mag particle process by verifying magnetic particle performance. Use to check for mag particle deterioration, to compare different magnetic powders, to verify sensitivity or visibility or to assure field direction and strength. In this blog we look at the primary use of Quantitative Quality Indicators (QQIs) and Magnetic Flux Indicators which are to verify field direction and strength.

Field strength and orientation are key factors in a successful magnetic particle examination. Sufficient magnetic field must be present to form indications on the surface being examined. And because magnetism is directional in nature, only discontinuities that cross the lines of flux will produce leakage fields to form those indications.

Unfortunately, the magnetic field within the part cannot be measured directly. So many practitioners use artificial flaws or test pieces to confirm magnetic field strength. At the same time, artificial flaws can confirm direction since only those orthogonal to the lines of flux will form indications. The most common artificial flaws in use are QQIs and Flux Indicator Strips. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages to consider when choosing the right tool for your inspection.

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Nondestructive Testing Careers Are on the Rise: Taking a Look at All Sides of the Puzzle

Nondestructive Testing Careers Are on the Rise: Taking a Look at All Sides of the PuzzleCareers in nondestructive testing are on the rise in today’s economy. These fields are constantly advancing, and there is an ever-growing need for technicians, quality assurance specialists and inspectors. Nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials and structures, is one of the most common forms of quality control. In fact, more and more people are turning to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) careers, including nondestructive testing to make their living.

The good news is many of these careers, such as nondestructive testing specialists, have customized curriculums that allow people to get the training and experience they need with just a two-year degree. It is not uncommon for NDT technicians to earn a minimum of $40,000 right after graduation. Paying around $10,000 for these degrees, graduates are getting a fantastic return on their educational investment.

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Radiographic Testing (RT) Level I Online Course

Radiographic Testing (RT) Level I Online CourseAINDT offers the Radiographic Testing (RT) Level I Online Course. This course is $699 and focuses on the theory and principles of radiation and their application to radiography. Subjects include:

  • Handling and processing radiographic film
  • Radiography techniques
  • Image quality
  • Basic radiographic interpretation
  • Safe use of RT equipment
  • Both X-Ray and Gamma Ray sources

Instructors are waiting to speak with you, so call today for more information on this 40-hour course: (855) 313-0325.

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Build Your Credit As You Repay With Meritize

AINDT now offers financing through Meritize. Meritize loans look beyond your FICO score and use your academic history to help determine your loan options-- even if you don't have a cosigner. If you do have a cosigner, your options are even better! Best of all, repaying your Meritize loan helps you rebuild your credit. What could be better? More repayment options!

  • Choose how to repay-- full payments, interest-only payments, or no payments until 3 months after graduation
  • Repay your loan over 3 or 5 years
  • Avoid prepayment penalty fees if you choose to pay loan off early
  • Access to Meritize Career Success Services for job and career support
  • Choose fixed or variable rates

With so many options, AINDT could not make it easier for you to begin a new, rewarding career in non-destructive testing. Instructors are waiting to speak with you, so call today for more information: (855) 313-0325.

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Financing Available Through Meritize

Want a new career, but the financial considerations seem out of reach? Worried your credit score won't allow you to qualify for assistance? AINDT is excited to now offer financing through Meritize. Your dreams are within reach! Meritize allows you to:

  • Use your transcript to enhance your credit and improve loan options
  • Fund the full cost of tuition on your own merit
  • Choose affordable fixed or variable rates
  • Select repayment options that work best for you-- full payments, interest-only payments, or no payments until 3 months after graduation

and so much more! Don't let finances stand in your way of a new, rewarding career in non-destructive testing. Call today for more information--instructors are waiting to speak with you! (855) 313-0325.

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Radiographic Testing (RT) Level I & Level II Online Courses

Radiographic Testing (RT) Level I & Level II Online CoursesAINDT offers both Level I and Level II online courses for radiographic testing (RT). Each course is $699 and offers theory and principles of radiation and their application to radiography.

Level I covers:

  • Handling and processing radiographic film
  • Radiography techniques
  • Image quality
  • Basic radiographic interpretation
  • Safe use of RT equipment
  • Both Gamma Ray and X-Ray sources analyzed

Level II covers:

  • Review of Level I subjects
  • Technical production of proper radiographic imaging.
  • Optimizing contrast
  • Definition
  • Sensitivity
  • Film processing
  • Interpretation
  • Calculations
  • Shot techniques
  • Utilizing acceptance criteria

Whether you seek basic or advanced RT certification qualifications, AINDT has you covered. Call today for more information and to speak to an instructor one-on-one: (855) 313-0325.

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AINDT Offers Blended Learning

AINDT Offers Blended LearningAt AINDT, we offer a unique blended learning experience to fit your lifestyle. This allows you to rapidly get the training you need to get you started in your exciting new career in NDT. Combining online courses with hands-on training, our blended learning approach sets you up for success. Advantages of blended learning are numerous and include:

  • Abridged on-campus attendance, reducing overall cost.
  • Online courses available on most mobile devices, so you can learn anywhere!
  • Instructors teach right through online classes.
  • Stimulates self-directed learning, time management, and problem solving.
  • Offers great flexibility
  • Tailored to fit your learning style
  • Instructors able to give more individual attention

The benefits are endless, and the careers are, too! With job placement assistance available upon exam completion, AINDT does it all. What are you waiting for? Instructors are waiting to speak with you! Call today: (855) 313-0325.

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AINDT Has Careers For You

AINDT Has Careers For YouYou need a job to pay the bills. Since you spend so much time at work, why not train for a fulfilling career instead? AINDT offers everything you need to start a new high-demand, well-paid career in non-destructive testing. Did you know non-destructive testing is a part of just about every industry you can think of? These include:

  • Aerospace
  • Construction
  • Defense
  • Laboratory
  • Petrochemical
  • Shipbuilding
  • Steel
  • Utility and power

Are you ready to make a change? Choose the rewarding industry that will always be in high demand. Let AINDT get you there. Job placement assistance is part of what we do. Call TODAY and speak to one of our instructors: (855) 313-0325.

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How Low Temperatures Impact Dye Penetrant Testing

In this article, we look at how lower inspection temperatures affect the performance of dye penetrant testing cleaners, penetrant and developers

The operating temperature range for penetrant inspection as specified in ASTM E1417 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing is 40°F to 125°F (4°C to 52°C), but how is the penetrant inspection affected at temperatures below 40°F (4°C) and can the inspection process be adjusted to achieve acceptable results?

To answer these questions, we evaluated SKC-S cleaner/remover, SKL-SP2 solvent removable dye penetrant and SKD-S2 non-aqueous developer at a range of temperatures in order to figure out what NDT inspectors can expect when using these, or similar quality dye penetrant products when inspecting at lower temperatures

Cleaning at lower temperatures

At lower temperatures in the range of 32°F – 50°F (0°C – 10°C), the solvent cleaner will take longer to dry.

We used 75°F (24°C) as our ambient, standard operating temperature, and observed how decreasing temperatures impacted how quickly the solvent cleaner dried. Below are our suggested drying time for solvent-based cleaner/removers at lower temperatures.
 

TemperatureCleaner Drying Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
50°F / 10°C 2 x Standard
40°F / 4°C 3 x Standard
32°F / 0°C 4 x Standard

It is critical to make sure the solvent has evaporated during the precleaning step either by wiping with a clean, lint free cloth or using air dryers to ensure a clean and dry part prior to penetrant application. Unevaporated cleaner remaining in indications can impede penetrant entry into the surface breaking indications.

Dwelling at lower temperatures

Penetration time should also be extended since the viscosity of penetrant increases with decreasing temperatures, which slows down penetration and can significantly impact the test results.
 

TemperatureDwell Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
45°F / 7°C 2 x Standard
32°F / 0°C 2.5 x Standard

Developer at lower temperatures

Developer drying time is more of a challenge and our tests showed the developing action is impeded because of the slower solvent evaporation. When the developer dries, the indications become fuzzy or show excessive bleed out.

Penetrant Developer

We were not able to get good results at 32°F (0°C) because the developer remained wet and did not dry within a reasonable amount of time. At 38 – 40°F (3 – 4°C), and with some air movement, developer film will dry at 5 times the standard time at 75°F (24°C).
 

TemperatureDeveloper Drying Time
75°F / 24°C Standard
40°F / 4°C 5 x Standard

A positive note is at low temperatures, we found good indications with extremely small and tight defects. The slow drying rate of the developer film allows greater bleed out of the penetrant from the defect. For large defects, longer development time caused excessive bleed out making indication interpretation more difficult.


Contact us if you need more help assessing your low temperature dye penetrant application, or have any questions on additional products for dye or liquid penetrant testing

Do you have any tips for low temperature dye penetrant testing or other non-destructive testing?
Share your ideas in the comments section below.

Source: https://magnaflux.com/Magnaflux/Blog/Low-Temperature-Dye-Penetrant-Testing?utm_source=linkedin&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=Education&utm_content=Low-Temp-Dye-Penetrant

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Exposing 10 Common Misunderstandings about Penetrant Testing

We reveal common penetrant inspection misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years

The liquid penetrant method of nondestructive testing has been used since the 1940’s. But even after being used by generations of NDT professionals, there are still some common areas of confusion or misunderstanding.

Here we set the record straight on 10 misperceptions we’ve seen in the field in recent years.

 

1. The highest sensitivity penetrant is the best penetrant for my application

The best penetrant for an application is the one that finds the right indications with the least amount of money and time. Sometimes this means not using the highest sensitivity penetrant.

While it is true that a higher sensitivity penetrant will produce indications for very small discontinuities, a higher sensitivity penetrant will probably not give you the best inspection results if you only need to find medium discontinuities since you will see far more indications than are relevant to the inspection.

To start selecting a penetrant, review any governing specifications and work procedures for required sensitivity levels.

Take into consideration the surface finish and configuration of the part.

A high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant is appropriate for smooth, highly machined surfaces. However, a high sensitivity level fluorescent penetrant may leave excessive fluorescent background on a rough cast part, making inspection difficult. 

A lower sensitivity fluorescent penetrant is a better choice for rough surfaces.

 

2. A penetrant indication is a discontinuity

A penetrant indication is the visual results or response of the penetrant test which must be interpreted to determine its relevance.

Penetrant indications must be evaluated by a qualified inspector to determine if they are nonrelevant or relevant.

Nonrelevant indications may be present on parts because of inherent surface roughness or seams. Fingerprints or fibers may also cause nonrelevant indications.

Relevant indications are the result of a discontinuity, or interruption in the physical structure of an object, and are evaluated according to acceptance criteria. After evaluation, the part is accepted as is, reworked or discarded.

 

3. Water washable penetrants are water based

Some water washable penetrants are water based. However, this is not always the case. A penetrant can be water washable and not contain water.

Water-washable penetrants contain surfactants which allow the penetrant to be easily removed from the part surface with water rinsing, regardless of if they are water-based or oil-based.

 

4. Penetrants are only used on nonferrous metals

Penetrants can be used to inspect ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant inspection will find discontinuities open to the surface on ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Penetrant testing should not be done on porous surfaces, as the pores will act as discontinuities to trap penetrant and prevent accurate inspection.

 

5. Penetrant will be able to penetrate a discontinuity that contains water

Penetrant cannot seep into a discontinuity if it is already filled with water or other liquid.

Likewise, penetrant will not displace or penetrate through paint, particulate, oil or grease.

This is one of the reasons why an important prerequisite for a valid penetrant inspection is to start with properly cleaned and dried parts.

 

6. Tanks and an inspection booth are required for penetrant inspection

Penetrant inspection is easy to adapt to different environments and job sites.

Penetrant inspection systems with stationary tanks and booths are commonly seen in production environments. However, both fluorescent and visible dye penetrants are available in aerosol cans and kits for convenience and portability.

 

Check out our Penetrant Process Guide for a visual reference outlining each step in the various penetrant inspection methods and to learn 5 tips for penetrant testing

 

7. Penetrant is all that is needed to perform a penetrant inspection

At a minimum, penetrant and developer are required to perform a water washable penetrant inspection.

Additional products such as cleaner/removers and emulsifiers are required for solvent removable and post emulsifiable penetrant inspections.

 

8. Special lighting is required for penetrant inspection

Fluorescent penetrants do require inspection in a darkened area with specification compliant UV lighting. The UV lights may be mounted or hand-held for flexibility and portability.

Visible dye penetrants only require adequate white light, typically 100 foot candles minimum, for inspection.

 

9. Penetrant inspection should be the final check in a manufacturing process

Penetrant inspection is useful immediately after any manufacturing process which is known to cause discontinuities. This allows parts to be reworked or discarded earlier in the manufacturing process, which saves time and cost.

Penetrant inspection may sometimes be performed more than once during the manufacture of a part.

The placement of each penetrant inspection process should be optimized to locate manufacturing-induced discontinuities and reduce the amount of scrap or rework done later in the manufacturing process.

 

10. Penetrant inspection can take place at any point in the manufacturing process

As discussed, it is important to perform penetrant inspection after manufacturing operations likely to cause discontinuities open to the surface in parts.

However, care must be taken to perform penetrant inspection prior to mechanical operations that will smear the metal surface. Machining operations such as shot blasting, peening or grinding may close surface discontinuities, which can prevent subsequent penetrant inspections from finding these discontinuities.

Penetrant inspection should take place before machining operations like shot blasting, peening or grinding unless chemical etching can be used between these operations and the penetrant testing to reliably expose the discontinuities.

 

What other common misunderstandings or mistakes have you seen? 
Share your knowledge in the comments section below.

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How to Improve Fluorescent NDT Process Control with LED UV Lighting [Case Study]

In this article, we show how an aerospace OEM manufacturer increased NDT inspection reliability and efficiency with wide-beam, overhead LED UV-A lamps

Mercury-vapor lamps are the biggest culprits when it comes to inconsistent UV lighting. Whether you’re using a hand-held 100W lamp, a larger 400W HID fixture or even low-pressure fluorescent tube lighting, the intensity and coverage of the lamp can change dramatically throughout the day.

Not only do mercury-vapor lamps take time to warm up to full intensity, but any variation in the line voltage directly translates to a change in intensity. Power fluctuations can change from day to day, or even from shift to shift depending on what equipment is running in the plant.

Even with regular maintenance, the intensity of a particular lamp will fade over time as the bulb is used. An inspection booth with both stationary fixtures and hand-held lamps will have different coverage depending on the age of the individual bulbs and when they were last replaced.

The move from mercury-vapor lamps to LED UV lights helps to eliminate these kinds of variations, but swapping out existing lamps with LEDs can bring its own challenges.

Magnaflux is working with our customers to better understand the issues that end-users face. Below, we explain the challenges one aerospace OEM manufacturer faced, and how Magnaflux helped address their challenges.

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